Online Technology for Research & Insight

FAQs: Crosstabs and Derived Variables

Frequently asked questions. Click on any question to see the answer.

Analysis of Responses toolset


AOR01 What is included in the Analysis of Responses toolset?

This is your main data analysis toolset in Demographix. It has an easy-to-use interface with five different tabs across the top as follows:
Analysis: this allows you to see all your data in a single view with dynamic percentages and numbers for each answer option
For more on ANALYSIS go to: Analysis of Responses and Filters.
Filters: this allows you to filter the data by specific variables from the survey (e.g. all males)
For more on FILTERS go to: Analysis of Responses and Filters.
Crosstabs: this allows you to run crosstab reports with data options from a question or several questions across the top and answers from either all or a selected number of questions down the side
For more on CROSSTABS go to: Crosstabs and Derived Variables.
Derived Variables: this tab allows to create answers based on a combination of questions in the survey (e.g. males who are 25-44 and do not live in London)
For more on DERIVED VARIABLES go to: Crosstabs and Derived Variables.
Weighting: allowing to weight your data based on the population you are interested in
For more on WEIGHTING go to: Sampling, quotas and weighting.
Excel and PDF reports of this analysis can be generated within the toolset, but users may also easily cut and paste data from the Excel reports into other office programs, such as Powerpoint or Word.

The CROSSTAB tab


CTB01 How do I create a crosstab report?

In the Analysis of Responses, click on the CROSSTAB tab, which will display the crosstab configuration toolset. The first section asks you to select the question for the column header - i.e. how the data is split according to how respondents answered this question. For instance, you may want to split the data according to region or age group. The second part asks you to select the questions in the survey you want to apply the crosstab to. If you want to include all the questions on a single page, then tick the box next to the page title, and all its questions will be selected. There are also SELECT ALL QUESTIONS and SELECT NONE triggers to make this easier in large surveys. But, remember that a crosstab with all questions selected will take much longer to build than one with selected questions in it. Finally, click the "Create crosstab report" button and the single question crosstab report will display in a new pop-up or tab of your browser.

CTB02 What questions are shown that can be used as crosstab headers?

The only questions shown under the SELECT QUESTION(S) FOR COLUMN HEADER(S) section of the configuration tool are the single choice and multiple choice questions in the survey. These may be standard single-choice demographic questions like age groups, gender, regions, income brackets, etc, or multiple choice questions such as TV channels watched, newspapers read, favourite holiday destinations, etc. Also available is the Sources breakdown, which can indicate such things as: labels given to emails sent to a panel, tags specified by the survey creator, or social media labels to indicate where responses are originating.

CTB03 Can I create a multiple question crosstab?

Yes. In the first part of the configuration you can choose more than one question for a crosstab breakdown, all in one report. If you choose more than one question, the crosstab report will not be displayed in a browser - a notification will appear stating YOUR CROSSTAB WILL BE CREATED ONLY AS AN EXCEL DOCUMENT. When you have chosen the questions to be crosstabbed, click the "Create crosstab report" button, and the multiple question crosstab report will be generated.

CTB04 Can I save a crosstab for later use?

Yes. When you're configuring the crosstab, tick the box next to the label "Save these Selections for later". A box will appear asking you to give a name to this saved file, such as "Age Crosstab Jan 13". Once the crosstab has been generated, a saved version will be available via the Analysis of Responses interface for future reference. The saved selections that can be reloaded will appear in a dropdown menu directly beneath the CROSSTAB tab title.

CTB05 How do I generate a report (Excel or PDF) of my single-question crosstab?

At the top of the Crosstab Report that is generated are two reporting options: DOWNLOAD AS EXCEL and CREATE PDF. Click on DOWNLOAD AS EXCEL and the system immediately creates an Excel version of the report that can be saved to your Downloads folder (recommended). The Excel report has four tabs: Crosstab (sample+nett+gross); Crosstab(nett); Crosstab(gross); and Crosstab(Sample sizes). The CREATE PDF option will generate another button (OPEN PDF VERSION) once the download version has been built. Click on the button and the PDF can be downloaded and viewed.

CTB06 What is included in my multiple question crosstab Excel report?

The Excel report has four tabs: Crosstab (sample+nett+gross); Crosstab(nett); Crosstab(gross); and Crosstab(Sample sizes). The first tab is a consolidated summary of the other tabs. The single tabs are useful for focussing on one set of data, and for cutting and pasting into Powerpoint and other applications. There is no browser version of multiple crosstab reports available.

CTB07 What is the difference between NETT and GROSS calculations in a crosstab report?

In crosstab reports, a GROSS percentage calculation uses the column header question as its base. NETT figures use only respondents who answered both that particular column option and the question being analysed. Therefore, if you have questions that are not compulsory, there may be variations in sample sizes between these crosstabbed questions.

CTB08 Can I crosstab on a Date Picker question?

Yes, but only by creating a Derived Variable first. By default, in the Analysis of Responses toolset it is not possible to crosstab on a Date Picker (DP) question; but you can by setting up a Derived Variable first. To learn how to do this, see FAQ number DVS08.

The DERIVED VARIABLES tab


DVS01 What are Derived Variables?

Derived Variables are questions that can be added to the analysis of a survey whose answers are based on one or more other questions in the survey. In effect, Derived Variables could also be called "Added-In Questions", and they are added into the beginning of the Analysis of Responses report, before the respondent-answered question results are shown. They are summarised and accessed through a new Derived Variables tab on the Analysis of Responses report, and can be created and edited any time after a survey goes live and has received responses. Once specified, Derived Variables can be used like any other question to filter and crosstab data.
For example, survey respondents are asked to denote their age range, locality and gender in three separate questions. By creating a new Derived Variable question called "Age-gender-locality sub-groups", the respondents could be segmented into all kinds of labelled groups (such as "Young men from X Region" or "Older Females NOT living in X Region") according to how they answered the three questions.
SOME THINGS TO NOTE: Multiple Derived Variable questions can be created for a single survey, and they can be edited at any time to refine your analysis/segmentation. Derived questions do not appear in the survey builder interface or in the survey itself; they are only available through the Analysis of Responses, after data has been collected. Only respondent data and other Derived questions can be used to define Derived answers. Sources cannot be used.

DVS02 What is a simple example of a Derived Variable?

Here is a simple example of how Derived Variables can be used. In a survey, respondents are asked their age range (Under 16, 16 – 25, 26 – 35, 36 – 45, 46 – 55, 56 – 65, 66 – 75, Over 75) and also asked their gender. By creating a new Derived Variable question (let's call it "Age/gender groups"), the respondents could be segmented into six groups (or Derived Answers) created by merging the options in the two questions above. We could group them as:
Young females (25 or under and female)
Medium age females (26 to 55 and female)
Older females (56 and above and female)
Young males (25 or under and male)
Medium age males (26 to 55 and male)
Older males (56 and above and male)
The data used to define each of the six Derived Answers we have specified above has been selected from two questions in the survey, and the resulting Derived question can now be used to filter or crosstab all the responses.

DVS03 Can you use negative criteria or other derived variable questions to define Derived Answers?

Yes, you can use negative criteria to define the derived answers, as in these examples with "not" statements:
People who shop at either Tesco or Asda and do not live in London
People who shop at both Tesco and Asda, do not shop at Sainsburys, and are Medium age males
People who liked advert X in a magazine or liked advert X on a website, but did not like advert X on TV.
Derived Variable answers can be derived from other Derived Variables in the same survey analysis. However, where a Derived answer is used to define another Derived answer it can be edited but not deleted. Also, you cannot have circular references. So if Derived question 2 is based on Derived question 1, then when later editing Derived question 1 you cannot base any of its answers on Derived question 2.

DVS04 How do I create a Derived Variable?

Open the survey's Analysis of Responses and click the Derived Variables tab. Click the “Create a New Derived Variable” button. You will open up the Derived Variable editing interface in a pop-up (or new browser tab, depending on how your browser is configured). You will be asked to “Enter name for your new Derived Variable”. Type this in, and click the Confirm button. You can edit this DV name later if needed. Note that this does not need to read as an actual question, it can be a descriptive phrase, such as “Age Regional Gender Combines” which indicates what the aim of the DV is (in this instance to create groups from age brackets, regions and gender). Once you have named the Derived Variable question, the DV Editor Tool will appear with the Derived Question name shown at top. On the left hand is space for the Derived Answers to be listed, once they've been created. On the right hand side is the box in which the first Derived Answer can be specified. Use this tool to create all the Derived Answers you need. clicking the "Save changes" button as each is done. Once you have finished creating all the Derived Answers you want, click the “Apply to Analysis and close” button to take you out of the DV Editor and back to the main Analysis of Responses interface.

DVS05 Once I have defined a Derived variable, where can I see the applied data?

Click on the Analysis tab, and the "Derived variables" section is colour-coded in brown headers, like the "Sources" section (as opposed to the blue background page headers from the survey proper). Here you will see the numbers associated with each Derived Answer. Note that these default to GROSS percentages, and will not add up to 100% of total respondents, as some survey responses will not qualify to be included in any of the derived answers. They are also shown by default in Creation Order, but they can be reordered as highest or lowest first.

DVS06 How can I see and edit the Derived Answers of a Derived Variable?

You can see the definitions of all the Derived Answers itemised in detail under the Derived Variables tab. The EDIT button alongside the Derived variable header allows you to trigger the DV Editor from here. If there are several Derived Variables specified for this survey they will be shown listed here consecutively (in order of creation). Clicking on the EDIT button next to the relevant Derived variable name will open it. You can edit the DV name or edit the Derived Answers, and save these changes with ease. There is also be a "Delete Derived Variable" button, which will trigger a confirmation alert.

DVS07 What reports can I generate from the Derived Variables tab?

Derived variables, once created, are part of the main analysis of the survey. You can download reports containing DVs, in PDF and Excel formats, from the Analysis tab in the usual way. DVs used in filter or crosstab reports can be downloaded from those tabs as well.

DVS08 How do I set up a Derived Variable for a Date Picker question to use in a crosstab analysis?

In the Analysis of Responses toolset, click on the Derived Variable tab, click the "Create A New Derived Variable" button and name your new DV question. For example, you might have a Date Picker question in your survey that asks for a date in January (with a restricted date range of just the days in that month). You now want to crosstab on those who selected dates in week 1, week 2, etc. So the DV could be called "Weeks of January", and each answer would be defined using the calendar pop-ups. When you have created all the answers, click the "Apply" button. Your DV will be saved and applied to the main analysis tab. This option now becomes available in the Crosstab tab to crosstab any questions in the rest of the survey.

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